We welcome candidates with diverse research interests, but we seek especially interdisciplinary scholars excited by the prospect of joining a robustly interdisciplinary institution. The successful candidate will demonstrate ability or promise as an interdisciplinary collaborator: in addition to teaching electives in their area, the successful applicant will join an interdisciplinary teaching team in DKU’s second common core class, entitled Global Challenges in Science, Technology, and Health.
About: Duke Kunshan University (DKU) is a collaborative partnership of Duke University, Wuhan University and the Municipality of Kunshan, China (https://dukekunshan.edu.cn). Our campus provides an innovative and robustly interdisciplinary undergraduate liberal arts experience to a student body that will number 2000 students and 150+ faculty, with an acceptance rate of <8% and a student body represented by over 60 countries. Faculty teach and conduct research in interdisciplinary clusters without traditional departmental silos. In our interdisciplinary majors, every DKU student engages in robust undergraduate research. We seek faculty committed to undergraduate research and teaching who are excited by the possibilities inherent in our university.
Duke Kunshan University (DKU) invites applications to a tenure-track faculty position in science and technology studies, beginning in the academic year 2022-2023. We seek interdisciplinary scholars, excited by the prospect of joining a robustly interdisciplinary institution. In addition to teaching electives in their area, the successful applicant will join an interdisciplinary teaching team in DKU’s second common core class, entitled Global Challenges in Science, Technology, and Health. Mid-career and senior faculty are especially encouraged to apply.
As an international intellectual community that encourages diversity, openness and creative learning, DKU welcomes outstanding faculty from around the world who contribute diverse perspectives and experiences to a global learning and research environment. DKU particularly welcomes applications from underrepresented groups and minorities.
In order to meet Chinese visa requirements, prior to the position start date international (non-Chinese) candidates must have worked full-time (work experience obtained while studying full-time is not considered as full-time work experience) for at least two years in a relevant area (including post-doctoral work) after receiving their Bachelor’s degree, or begin their appointment at DKU within 12 months of obtaining their master’s degree/Ph.D. and without having work experience between graduation date on master’s degree diploma/Ph.D. diploma and position start date.
DKU is a collaborative partnership of Duke University, Wuhan University and the Municipality of Kunshan, China (https://dukekunshan.edu.cn/). Our campus provides an innovative and robustly interdisciplinary undergraduate liberal arts experience to a student body that will number 2000 students and 150+ faculty, with an acceptance rate of <8% and a student body represented by over 60 countries. We also offer a discrete number of Master’s level graduate programs. The DKU pedagogical model draws on the best of Duke’s educational experience and resources to reimagine undergraduate instruction on an intimate campus setting.
Similar to the best liberal arts colleges in the United States, DKU values dedication to teaching excellence in a liberal arts environment, as well as a strong commitment to successful scholarly engagement and research. This includes research with undergraduate students. As a whole, the Duke Kunshan faculty will have strong commitments to teaching and research, and outstanding quality in both areas will be highly valued.
Candidates must hold a Ph.D. degree or equivalent in a relevant field. Research experience at a postdoctoral level (or greater) and teaching experience are desirable, as is experience working in an interdisciplinary setting. Applicants should provide a cover letter including a clear statement of the candidate’s specific interest in DKU, a curriculum vitae, a research statement, a teaching statement, and three reference letters. All materials should be submitted through Academic Jobs Online: https://academicjobsonline.org/ajo/jobs/19364. The search committee also invites and encourages letters of nomination for potential candidates. Nominations and questions about the positions may be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org using “Science and Technology Studies” as the subject line. Priority will be given to applications received by October 15, 2021; we will accept applications until the positions are filled.
The DKU campus is 37 miles west of Shanghai in Kunshan, and is connected to Shanghai via an 18-minute high-speed train and a subway-light rail train system. DKU provides internationally competitive compensation, housing allowance, child education benefits (for applicable faculty positions), and a discretionary fund or start-up package.
How has our understanding of medicine evolved over the past 2,500 years? A Cultural History of Medicine, as the first comprehensive and interdisciplinary overview of the cultural history of medicine from ancient times to modernity, discusses this. With six highly illustrated volumes covering 2500 years of human history, this is the definitive reference work on the subject.
Individual volume editors ensure the cohesion of the whole, and to make it as easy as possible to use, chapter titles are identical across each of the volumes. This gives the choice of reading about a specific period in one volume, or following a theme across history by reading the relevant chapter in each of the six.
The six volumes cover: 1. - Antiquity (500BCE - 800 CE); 2. - Middle Ages (800 - 1450); 3. - Renaissance (1450 - 1650); 4. - Age of Enlightenment (1650 - 1800); 5. - Age of Empire (1800 - 1920); 6. - Modern Age (1920 - 2000+).
The page extent for the pack is approximately 1,728 pp with c. 240 b/w illustrations. Each volume opens with Notes on Contributors and an Introduction and concludes with Notes, Bibliography, and an Index.
The Cultural Histories Series A Cultural History of Medicine is part of The Cultural Histories Series. Titles are available both as printed hardcover sets for libraries needing just one subject or preferring a one-off purchase and tangible reference for their shelves, or as part of a fully-searchable digital library available to institutions by annual subscription or on perpetual access (see www.bloomsburyculturalhistory.com).
Table of Contents Volume 1: A Cultural History of Medicine in Antiquity (500BCE-800CE) Edited by Laurence Totelin (Cardiff University, UK)
Volume 2: A Cultural History of Medicine in the Middle Ages (800-1450) Edited by Iona McCleery (University of Leeds, UK)
Volume 3: A Cultural History of Medicine in the Renaissance (1450-1650) Edited by Elaine Leong (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science, Germany) and Claudia Stein (University of Warwick, UK)
Volume 4: A Cultural History of Medicine in the Age of Enlightenment (1650-1800) Edited by Lisa Smith (University of Essex, UK)
Volume 5: A Cultural History of Medicine in the Age of Empire (1800-1920) Edited by Jonathan Reinarz (University of Birmingham, UK)
Volume 6: A Cultural History of Medicine in the Modern Age (1920-2000+) Edited by Todd Meyers (McGill University, Canada)
9.00 – 9.30 Tara Calaby, La Trobe University, “Her Daughter Who Is a Patient Visits Her Daily”: Family Relationships in Victoria’s Lunatic Asylums, 1860-1914
9.35 – 10.05 Sutapa Mukhopadhyay, Kishore Bharati Bhagini Nivedita College (Co-ed) Kolkata, A search of Healthcare of middle class Bengali Women in the late 19th to early 20th century Bengal in their autobiographies
10.10 – 10.40 Camille Bajeux, University of Geneva, “My doctor would like to see you” – Women’s management of male sexual and reproductive difficulties during the Trente Glorieuses (France and French-speaking Switzerland)
10.40 – 11.15 Break
11.15 – 11.45 Christine Atha, University of Leeds,Housing Problems – a study in decay and disease in the ‘healthy’ home
11.50 – 12.20 Ian Miller, Ulster University, Ending
the ‘Cult of the Broken Home’: Divorce, Children and the Changing
Emotional Dynamics of Separating British Families, c. 1945–90
12.25 – 12.55 Sophia Koenig, Leipzig University, (Un-)safe childbirth: German midwives and the evolution of midwifery and infant care in Germany 1918–1933
12.55 – 13.45 Lunch
13.45 – 14.30 Work in progress, ten minute presentations:
Aisling Shalvey, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher Leopoldina e. V., Little’s Disease During National Socialism; A Comparative Case Study
Andrew Burchell, University of Warwick, Running in the family? Provincial snapshots of stammering in early twentieth-century England (and some parts of Scotland), c.1900-1945
Sadegh Attari, University of Birmingham, Porous Protectors: Plague, Health, and the Home in Late Medieval England
14.35 – 15.05 Steven King, Nottingham Trent University, Constructing Obligation: The Limits to Family Care of the disabled Poor 1750s-1900s
15.05 – 15.30 Break
15.30 – 16.00 Katharina Rowold, University of Roehampton, Is Mother’s Milk Always Best? Maternal and Infant Health at the Turn of the Twentieth Century in Britain
16.05 – 16.35 Cara Dobbing, independent researcher, Families, mental illness and the place of ‘home’ in nineteenth century England
Christine Atha, University of Leeds, Housing Problems – a study in decay and disease in the ‘healthy’ home
In the documentary film Housing Problems produced in 1935,
we witness a building collapsing in on its inhabitants. Babies die, men
and women despair, and infestations creep in everywhere. This paper
examines the physical and emotional manifestations of a ‘healthy’ home.
This home is an environment occupied by men, women and children
struggling to live with the building as it seems to respire and
expire around the occupants. As the narrator puts it “ Here’s a typical
interior of a decayed house.”
The spaces filmed in Housing Problems present the
experiences of the tenants in their own words as they are preyed upon by
insects and rodents, threatened by collapsing walls and ceilings, and
desperately try to stay clean.
In spite of this they maintain their dignity and sense of homeliness with
masses of decorative objects displayed throughout the rooms, artefacts
that provide an essential homeliness, a glimmer of a ‘healthy’ home,
objects that the 1930s design reformers would almost certainly have
removed immediately as a gaudy, tasteless, unnecessary trap for dust.
The film attempts to reconcile their suffering with the promise of a
new type of housing development in the example of the ill-fated Quarry
Hill flats housing development in Leeds.
Sadegh Attari, University of Birmingham, Porous Protectors: Plague, Health, and the Home in Late Medieval England
This paper examines the medical and spiritual attitudes towards both
the healthy and plague-infected domestic environment during plague
outbreaks. This is done in light of the advice on how to prevent
contracting plague as well as that on containing it within the domestic
environment in medical, civic, and religious texts from the Black Death
(1348–52) to mid-sixteenth England. The paper argues that in terms of
prevention, the medical and civic guidelines conceived of the home as a
body-like unit invested with a kind of bodily integrity, from which the
plague-causing ‘corrupt air’ must be expunged or withheld through
adhering to a hygienic conduct. In the religious sense, the domestic
environment was understood similarly, and the majority of spiritual
measures, which, to the medieval mind, were not distinct from the
medical guidelines, concerned leading a moral life and expelling the
corrupt air. These included not only withstanding temptation, but also
holding masses within the abode. One measure to prevent plague from
entering homes, however, was to keep prayer books and prayer rolls
devoted to Christ and saints with protective powers against plague
within the domestic environment, many of which were illustrated with
images of Christ and the saints. These saints included Ss Sebastian,
Roch, and Etheldreda, who were thought to have had the plague; martyred
saints associated with plague such as Ss George, Katherine, and Edmund,
among others; and depictions of Christ’s crucifixion in the Man of
Sorrows tradition or alongside the instruments of Passion portraying the
arma Christi trope. All of these figures were represented as
bodily violated, either showing open wounds or holding the instruments
with which they were killed (for instance, arrows, Katherine’s wheel, or
the windlass involved in St Erasmus’ martyrdom), but their bodily
violation did not symbolise a threat to the health of the home. Rather,
their bodily disintegration marked their protective power, their
reliability, and their spiritual perfection. In this way, while the
domestic body needed to be purged from disintegrating corruption, it
simultaneously needed to be populated and guarded by figures who embody
plague-stricken bodily disintegration. Thus, the home became a body
which is invested with bodily integrity and porousness at the same time.
Once infected, furthermore, the house, instead of being expunged, was
contained from the rest of the town, which was also considered a body
paralleling the human body. Thus, the infected house made the urban
environment porous, too.
Camille Bajeux, University of Geneva, “My doctor would like
to see you” – Women’s management of male sexual and reproductive
difficulties during the Trente Glorieuses (France and French-speaking Switzerland)
Alongside significant economic prosperity, the period of the Trente Glorieuses
(1946 to the mid-1970s) coincided in France and French-speaking
Switzerland with a growing medical interest and a ‘disciplinarization’
(Clarke, 1998) of sex research. A central tenet of this new field of
practice was to consider sexual and reproductive difficulties as
concerning both partners in heterosexual couples. The idea that mutual
pleasure was a central component of a healthy marriage had become a
commonplace in 1950s and 1960s France and French-speaking Switzerland
(Garibian, 2017; Thomé, 2019). A growing anxiety about divorce rates led
medical authorities to reframe sexual disorders as connected with
relationship problems in marriage rather than individual deficiencies
(Guimel & Kraus, 2018). In the growing field of the reproductive
sciences, infertility specialists also increasingly believed that both
partners must be examined to find the ‘true’ cause of sterility (Bajeux,
2020; Marsh & Ronner, 1996).
Although some historical research has shown that women have been
encouraged to care for their husbands’ feelings when they encountered a
sexual or reproductive difficulty (Bajeux, 2020; Rusterholz, 2019;
Herbst Lewis, 2010), little attention has been paid to the ways in which
doctors interacted and negotiated with heterosexual couples. Drawing
from patient records, medical literature, media archives, and feminist
literature (in the form of monographs, testimonies, etc.), I argue that
the medical ideal of treating heterosexual couples as a unit often
relied on the invisible and emotional labor (Strauss et al., 1982;
Thievenaz, 2017) performed by women on behalf of their husbands.
I argue that women performed most of the patient work of initiating
treatments, setting up appointments and keeping track of medical
histories and records. Those who faced their partners’ reluctance also
engaged in sentimental work to persuade them to have their semen
examined or to seek medical attention. I contend that doctors
simultaneously relied on women to reach male patients, while blaming
them when they acted ‘inappropriately’ and were thought to have a
negative impact on their partners’ wellbeing. Rather than passive
subjects, women also exerted agency in their relation to both doctors
and their husbands; sometimes forming alliances with practitioners or
ignoring their advice when they believed necessary.
Bajeux, C. (2020). Managing masculinities. Doctors, men, and men’s
partners facing male infertility in France and French-speaking
Switzerland (c. 1890–1970). Norma, 15(3‑4), 235‑250. https://doi.org/10.1080/18902138.2020.1805887
Garibian, T. (2017). De la question sexuelle à la sexologie médicale : une histoire des savoirs sur les sexualités (Suisse romande , 1890-1970). Université de Lausanne.
Guimel, C., & Kraus, C. (2018). Désirer ? Une brève histoire de
la sexologie à Lausanne depuis les années 1950. In D. Gardey & M.
Vuille (Éds.), Les sciences du désir. La sexualité féminine de la psychanalyse aux neurosciences (p. 71‑86). Éditions Le Bord de l’Eau.
Herbst Lewis, C. (2010). Prescription for Heterosexuality. Sexual Citizenship in the Cold War Era. The University of North Carolina Press.
Marsh, M., & Ronner, W. (1996). The Empty Craddle. Infertility in America from Colonial Times to the Present. The Johns Hopkins University Press.
Rusterholz, C. (2019). « You Can’t Dismiss that as Being Less Happy,
You See it is Different ». Sexual Counselling in 1950s England. Twentieth Century British History, 30(3), 375‑398.
Thievenaz, J. (2017). L’analyse des activités du patient: une occasion de réinterroger la notion de travail. Éducation et socialisation, 44.
Thomé, C. (2019). La sexualité aux temps de la contraception.
Genre, désir et plaisir dans les rapports hétérosexuels (France, années
1960-années 2010). École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales.
Andrew Burchell, University of Warwick, Running in the
family? Provincial snapshots of stammering in early twentieth-century
England (and some parts of Scotland), c.1900-1945
Under the impetus of mass schooling and compulsory medical inspection
in the first three decades of the twentieth century, the attention of
local elites increasingly alighted on children who ‘stammered’ or whose
speech was judged ‘inarticulate’. Classified variously as suffering from
a ‘defect’, ‘handicap’, or merely as ‘educationally backward’, such
children were problematised not merely due to the impact their perceived
disability had on classroom life, but also for their reduced employment
prospects when faced with popular prejudice and an economy
newly-reliant on communicative technologies such as the telephone. Local
newspapers carried advertisements from elocutionists who promised to
stammering in adults and children, while the elected representatives of
local authorities and their medical staff were also employing – and
helping to legitimate – new forms of expertise in speech impediments.
This work-in-progress paper draws from early research undertaken on my
project: ‘The Child’s Speech: speech therapy, stammering and activism in
Britain, c.1906-2000’. It will ground the connections between
stammering and the family within the local ecologies of provincial
England (with some attention also being paid to Scotland), and through
consideration of ‘patient’ and ‘practitioner’ perspectives.
Firstly, it explores how early therapists and School Medical Officers
placed the family within their conceptualisation of stammering’s cause
and aetiology, drawing from contemporary treatises, advice manuals, and
annual statistical reports. In these conceptualisations, ‘the family’
could become a conduit for articulating concerns around the nexus of
class, gender and speech. Moreover, there was a tension in which
families and their urban environments could be simultaneously imagined
as an important element of psychosocial ‘treatment’ for the child who
stammered and condemned as inherently pathological and inimical to the
development of ‘fluent’ speech in children.
However, by turning our attention equally to the families and family
lives of those who offered therapy, or claimed to ‘cure’ stammering, it
is also possible to examine the family’s ambiguity through another lens:
how was family life and ‘good’ speech actively modelled for those
undergoing ‘treatment’? And how did negotiations around the fluid
boundary of elocution and medicalised therapeutics provide a basis for
strategies of familial advancement in the quickly evolving, localised
market-place of ‘stammering cures’?
Tara Calaby, La Trobe University, “Her Daughter Who Is a
Patient Visits Her Daily”: Family Relationships in Victoria’s Lunatic
On the 20th of April, 1886, Philip and Jane Ryan were admitted to
Yarra Bend Asylum, along with their two daughters, Margaret and
Elizabeth. No member of the Ryan family would ever return to the outside
world. When Jane Ryan was dying of tuberculosis in Sunbury Asylum,
however, Margaret was permitted to visit her every day.
Recent research on the families of nineteenth-century lunatic asylum
patients has revealed that family members played a greater role than was
previously understood in asylum admission, discharge and even
treatment. However, this research depicts family as an external force
that only occasionally permeated the walls of the asylum. In this paper,
I argue that it was not uncommon for asylum patients to find themselves
confined alongside one or more members of their family, thus breaking
down the walls between the asylum ward and the social world outside. I
conducted an detailed study of the female casebooks of Victoria’s public
lunatic asylums between 1860 and 1914, identifying those patients whose
case notes indicated a familial relationship with another patient also
present in the asylum during the patient’s confinement. Where such
relationships were found, I used the broader asylum archives and other
existing historical sources to place these relationships within a
greater biographical context.
My research reveals that references to other family members are
fleeting but surprisingly common. In several cases, multiple family
members were admitted at the same time. More commonly, however, a family
member would join an existing asylum patient at a later date. Women
often gave birth within the asylum, which allowed for only a few, brief
days of mothering before the baby was sent away. In some cases, a family
member might be placed in the same ward, allowing for regular contact;
male relatives, however, would likely only have been seen at mixed-sex
I argue that the presence of family within the asylum could greatly
alter a woman’s experience of inpatient psychiatric treatment—for better
or for worse. However, the significance of these internal familial
relationships was underplayed by asylum doctors, despite the challenge
they provided to both the therapeutic ideal of removal of a patient from
the influences and anxieties of their outside life and to the image of
the asylum itself as a family, with the asylum superintendent as its
Cara Dobbing, independent researcher, Families, mental illness and the place of ‘home’ in nineteenth century England
Mental illness and experiences of it have traditionally been shrouded
in shame, and hidden from view. In the latter half of the nineteenth
century, aided by legislation, the mentally unwell were brought out of
homes and into public lunatic asylums, as the ‘place’ of insanity
shifted from the private into the public sphere. Despite this, mainly
due to chronic institutional overcrowding, some individuals remained in
the family home whilst being certified as insane. This paper will
interrogate the role of the family in both their involvement care of
relatives in their own homes, and their continued relationship with
relatives whilst in an asylum. Within the vast historiography of the
Victorian lunatic asylum, the voice of the family of a pauper patient
lies somewhat neglected. Their experience is confined to their role in
committal, and predominantly with regard to that of juvenile lunatics.
This paper will redress this imbalance through looking at the experience
of the pauper insane in nineteenth century Cumberland and Westmorland.
With the view to recount ‘history from below’, this paper will offer an
insight into how the family coped with a mentally ill member in an era
when a huge stigma was attached to mental illness, and asylum committal.
Using surviving annual lunatic returns, asylum admission papers, case
books, visitation registers and several more documents of one English
asylum, along with census material and local newspapers, this paper will
attempt to assess how families coped with, and adapted to mental
illness. This will help us to reassess the role of relatives and their
experience of mental illness. In particular, it shall redress the
overarching view that care was delivered in asylums with families
remaining on the periphery of decision making and caregiving. There will
also be space to discuss why some individuals made the asylum their
‘home’, and the reasons why families could be the trigger for mental
Steven King, Nottingham Trent University, Constructing Obligation: The Limits to Family Care of the disabled Poor 1750s-1900s
This paper draws on a unique dataset of pauper and advocate letters
and witness statements which stretches from the 1750s through to the
Liberal Welfare Reforms and covers every English and Welsh county. The
4,000,000+ words in the corpus afford us an opportunity to look at a
variety of aspects of sickness and health amongst the dependent poor,
not least because sickness widely defined was the single most important
cause of dependence on the state in this period. In this context, one of
the most remarkable aspects of the material are the continuities and
changes in the way individuals and families write about disabled
(mentally, physically and sensory) people within their kin group. This
paper will explore such writing and ask three questions: (i) How were
disabled people constructed in a rhetorical sense? (ii) What were the
continuities and changes in the way that family care was provided over
time and were there variations within and between England and Wales?
(iii) How did families understand and represent themselves as reaching
the limits of family care? I will show that families provided a deep and
complex reservoir of care for those with different sorts of disability
and that having done so they imposed a rhetorical and actual duty on the
state to step in when the limits of that care were reached. I will
further argue that the state in the guise of the Old and New Poor Laws
understood and reacted to that obligation, and in doing so gave life to a
moral framework within which obligations to the disabled were
constructed much as those that emerged to children.
Sophia Koenig, Leipzig University, (Un-)safe childbirth: German midwives and the evolution of midwifery and infant care in Germany 1918–1933
During and after WW1, infant mortality had become a major political
and social concern and reforms in midwifery and infant care were deemed
necessary to reduce its occurrence. My presentation aims to provide
insight into the evolution of midwifery and infant care in Germany
1918–1933. I would like to focus on two major reform-steps that were
taken, their significance and their effect. Throughout my presentation, I
am going to explain why midwives played a central role in this
development. I will focus on general developments across Germany, but
also include sources from my research in Saxony.
Hospital deliveries gained popularity from around 1910 onwards.
However, homebirths continued to be the norm. In 1918, almost 90% of
German women delivered their babies at home with assistance from
midwives. In these cases, midwives also provided post-partum as well as
basic infant care. With the first weeks in life being crucial to the
it seemed clear to “Sozialhygieniker” (Socialhygienists) that any
reform measures to reduce infant mortality had to start with pregnancy,
(home)births and the quality of care provided by midwives. They, along
with midwives’ representatives, considered the desolate economic
situation of most midwives to be the biggest issue. One in every two
midwives did not earn enough to avoid poverty. As a result, many
midwives worked several jobs and were unable to retire, regardless of
their health. There was a clear consensus that a midwifery reform was
necessary to ensure that midwives were healthy and content enough to
provide mothers with quality care. I would like to outline the central
reform steps and how they were thought to improve the quality of
Improving the quality of maternal healthcare was one important area
of concern, but these reforms only covered the first few weeks after
delivery and further steps were deemed necessary. Therefore, the second
step I am going to be focusing on is the involvement of midwives in
“Stillerziehung” (“breastfeeding education”). Breastfeeding was
considered to be a major factor in reducing infant mortality and by
1918, most local German health departments had come up with a variety of
strategies to educate mothers on breastfeeding. However, the most
successful approaches were those that involved midwives. I would like to
explain what steps were taken to increase breastfeeding rates and why
midwives were key to “Stillerziehung”.
Ian Miller, Ulster University, Ending the ‘Cult of the Broken
Home’: Divorce, Children and the Changing Emotional Dynamics of
Separating British Families, c. 1945–90
This paper examines the 20th-century transition from
stigmatising children from ‘broken homes’ to thinking of them as
‘emotionally vulnerable’. From the 1960s, rising divorce rates forced a
re-imagining of family dynamics beyond the nuclear. Until then,
psychologists and the public often presumed that (usually working-class)
children affected by divorce developed psychopathologies, triggering a
drift into juvenile delinquency. However, as divorce became more common,
and across all classes, this simplistic model proved unsustainable.
Instead, a fuller spectrum of emotional responses among affected
children were examined. A new consensus emerged that psychological and
behavioural problems could be avoided if parents created appropriate
emotional conditions while separating and divorcing, and if parents and
children openly communicated their feelings throughout the process, a
radically different approach from associating children from ‘broken
homes’ with crime. Children themselves were actively encouraged, through
a new genre of divorce books written for them, to express their
emotions with parents and friends. Using a broad range of mostly
unexplored divorce literature, this article argues that divorce was
radically rethought as an emotional experience for all involved and one
requiring careful management of emotional behaviour and expression to
ensure that the bonds of love in the now separating biological family
remained intact in challenging domestic circumstances.
Sutapa Mukhopadhyay, Kishore Bharati Bhagini Nivedita College (Co-ed) Kolkata, A search of Healthcare of middle class Bengali Women in the late 19th to early 20th century Bengal in their autobiographies
Since the 19th century a public health policy was
initiated by the colonial government. Medical care provided by the
British administration was an expression of imperial benevolence which
justified the colonial domination as a superior power to the colonised.
Gender played a very important role in the arena of health care. James
Mill constructed the image of the Indian women as victim of an
uncivilized society. Rescuing Indian women from their plight continued
to be seen as a necessary precondition for modernizing India and a tool
for legitimizing the colonial rule. Meredith Borthwick in her book The Changing Role of Women in Bengal 1849-1905
says that neither the bhadralok nor the Hindu society was ready to
grant women the same freedom as men, but the energies that had been
generated by social change could not be ignored. Along with women
education women healthcare became a matter of concern for the Bengali
society, though women’s healthcare was related to the reproductive
health only. There arose the question of national health which according
to the Bengali bhadralok class was feasible if the mothers were
healthy. The concept of healthy mother and healthy child gained momentum
during the period of political struggle against the British government.
My paper would like to focus on the Bengali middle class women’s own
idea of their health and how they described healthcare and awareness of
their families in their autobiographies. They witnessed different health
problems in their families and how they were treated is a matter of
interest. Child marriage in the Bengali society became a menace to the
women’s health. There were many diseases faced by the Bengali society
and the women were the most vulnerable members of the family. There is a
general belief that purdah practicing women were reluctant to see a
male doctor. However there were examples of male doctors treating female
patients in the family. The autobiographies of Bengali middle class
women give a very interesting picture of the healthcare system of
Katharina Rowold, University of Roehampton, Is Mother’s Milk
Always Best? Maternal and Infant Health at the Turn of the Twentieth
Century in Britain
In 1902, Ralph Vincent, soon-to-be the chief physician of the first
Infants’ Hospital in Britain, declared that breast milk was not always
an ‘ideal food’ for babies: the composition of the bodily fluid was too
variable. It was plain to him that breastfeeding as a means of infant
feeding could have its drawbacks and disadvantages. Victorian advice and
medical literature had long encouraged maternal breastfeeding over
other means of infant feeding, such as wet nursing and bottle feeding.
However, as this paper will explore, embedded in contemporary
conceptualisations of breast milk and feeding was the understanding the
maternal body could not always be relied on to produce milk of
satisfactory quality and quantity. Indeed, under certain circumstances,
this manner of feeding could be dangerous to babies. Equally, it was
thought that mothers could not always withstand the demands that
breastfeeding placed on their bodies and minds, putting maternal health
at risk. However, during the early twentieth century, in the context of
growing concern about the infant mortality rate, the developing infant
welfare movement increasingly positioned maternal breastfeeding as the
pre-eminent determinant of babies’ healthy development. Redefining
earlier understandings of the maternal-infant feeding relationship, this
process was underwritten by exploration of how careful medical
management and maternal self-regulation vis-à-vis diet, levels of
exercise and emotional states would ensure satisfactory production of
milk. This paper will explore how these ideas on breastfeeding and
maternal and infant health were negotiated and interpreted in various
ways by infant hygienists, family doctors, and mothers during the late
nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
Aisling Shalvey, Deutsche Akademie der Naturforscher
Leopoldina e. V., Little’s Disease During National Socialism; A
Comparative Case Study
Little’s Disease, also known as Spastic Diplegia, is a form of
cerebral palsy which was first described by Dr William John Little in
1861. Studying this particular illness is interesting as it formed a
point of contention about exactly what this disease encompassed, and how
it was caused. Dr Little considered it to be caused by asphyxia at
birth, but Dr Sigmund Freud considered it to be caused by something
inherited before birth. The symptoms could vary from jerky movement and
tension in the lower limbs, but in some cases it resulted in learning
difficulties and further disabilities. It remained largely unclear as to
how the illness developed, if it could be prevented, and what
treatments were most helpful. Scientific study on Little’s disease
largely stagnated after Freud’s publication, even though there was no
consensus as to how it began, or indeed, what the core hallmarks of the
disease were. Despite this lack of clarity, Little’s disease was one of
the illnesses selected for ‘elimination’ during the Nazi era through
compulsory registration of births, and subsequent killing at a medical
facilty. Concepts of heritability of disease, disability, and the
importance of family in the care of these children was integral to how
patients were treated with disease. This paper discusses how under the
same regime, some were subject to physiotherapy and orthopaedic
operations to improve their quality of life, while others were murdered
in institutions due to ableist ideas of the German ‘Volk’. Indeed, this
lack of clarity about what this disease was, and the decision to list it
as part of the compulsory registration order, served only to encourage
unethical medical research to examine the illness further. Dr
Hallervorden, an infamous Nazi neuropathologist, conducted a
considerable amount of neuropathological research on Little’s Disease
using the brains of those who had been killed. This paper then considers
this discrepancy in how patients were treated, in spite of this
compulsory registration of illness. This work-in-progress paper will
examine case studies of those with Little’s disease side by side and
illustrate the role played by families and medical practitioners in
response to this complex and not well understood illness.
À l’occasion de sa dixième année d’existence, le réseau de recherche Historien.nes de la santé a décidé de partir à la rencontre de celles et ceux qui font, mais surtout qui renouvellent le champ de l’histoire de la santé en français. Pour la deuxième séance de ce nouveau cycle de conférences intitulé « À la rencontre des historien.nes de la santé », il sera question d'avortement.
Autour des interventions de Laura Tatoueix (CRH - EHESS) et Marie-Laurence Raby (Université Laval)
Les praticien.nes de santé et l’avortement en France (XVIIe-XVIIIe s.)
Laura Tatoueix (CRH - EHESS)
Les praticien·nes de santé (médecins, chirurgiens, sages-femmes) occupent une place particulière dans l’histoire de l’avortement en France à l’époque moderne. Alors que la pratique est formellement interdite par les autorités religieuses et civiles, ainsi que par certains textes régissant les professions de santé à l’époque moderne (statuts concernant l’exercices des sages-femmes dans certaines villes, ou encore dans une autre mesure, le serment d’Hippocrate), ils possèdent des savoirs et des savoir-faire qui les font figurer en première ligne parmi les avorteurs et les avorteuses. Mais ils produisent aussi un discours médical sur le sujet, pourtant extrêmement ambigu, entre condamnation de l’avortement volontaire et transmission masquée de savoirs à ce sujet. Cette communication propose de revenir rapidement sur les résultats de ma thèse concernant les praticien·nes de santé, tant comme acteurs/trices des avortements que comme producteurs/trices d’un savoir à ce sujet.
Les réseaux féministes d'avortement clandestin au Québec, 1969-1976: un modèle de résistance aux normes véhiculées par l'État et l'institution médicale.
Marie-Laurence Raby (Université Laval)
En 1969, le gouvernement canadien adopte le bill Omnibus, légalisant l'homosexualité et la contraception et libéralisant l'avortement thérapeutique. Cette réforme du code criminel sur l'avortement réifie plusieurs normes sociales sur les femmes et la maternité et contribue à la médicalisation de cette pratique. Les réseaux féministes d'avortement se constituent alors en espace subversif, en donnant accès à des avortements sur demande et en s'opposant aux prescriptions normatives énoncées dans la loi. Ces réseaux font également preuve de résilience: les militantes féministes adoptent une stratégie transnationale entre 1973 et 1976 alors que la pratique illégale de l'avortement fait l'objet d'une campagne répressive de la part de l'État québécois. La poursuite de leurs activités et l'affirmation du rôle politique de leur réseau durant cette période montre qu'elles développent de manière ininterrompue, tout au long des années 1970, des pratiques en santé sexuelle et reproductive constituant des vecteurs de changements sociaux.
Social Class and Mental Illness in Northern Europe
Petteri Pietikäinen & Jesper Kragh (dir.)
Éditeur : Taylor & Francis Ltd (30 juin 2021) Langue : Anglais Broché : 228 pages ISBN-13 : 978-1032088143
This book examines the relationship between social class and mental illness in Northern Europe during the 20th century. Contributors explore the socioeconomic status of mental patients, the possible influence of social class on the diagnoses and treatment they received in psychiatric institutions, and how social class affected the ways in which the problems of minorities, children and various 'deviants' and 'misfits' were evaluated and managed by mental health professionals. The basic message of the book is that, even in developing welfare states founded on social equality, social class has been a significant factor that has affected mental health in many different ways - and still does.
University of Pennsylvania: School of Arts and Sciences: School of Arts and Sciences - History
Location Philadelphia, PA
Open Date Sep 14, 2021
The School of Arts and Sciences at the University of Pennsylvania invites applications for a tenure-track position in the history of sexuality at the assistant professor rank. The successful candidate will be appointed in the Department of History and will be centrally involved in the Gender, Sexuality, and Women’s Studies (GSWS) Program. They will teach undergraduate and graduate courses in History and the GSWS Program, with the normal course load being two courses per semester.
We welcome candidates working in the post-1800 period on any geographical and topical area. We seek applicants who embrace innovative methods and critical perspectives on sexuality; engage with questions of race, ethnicity, empire, and colonialism; take interdisciplinary approaches; and/or study global/transnational materials. This position is part of a cluster of appointments in sexuality, gender, and/or queer studies, and candidates should have a strong interest in interacting with scholars from other disciplines whose research lies in this broad area of inquiry. The PhD is expected at the time of the appointment (July 1, 2022).
Applicants should submit their materials online at http://apply.interfolio.com/94511 and include a letter of application, a curriculum vitae, a writing sample (article or dissertation chapter), a teaching statement, and three confidential letters of recommendation. Review of applications will begin November 15, 2021, and continue until the position is filled.
The School of Arts and Sciences is strongly committed to Penn’s Action Plan for Diversity and Excellence and to creating a more diverse faculty (for more information see: http://www.upenn.edu/almanac/volumes/v58/n02/diversityplan.html). The University of Pennsylvania is an Equal Opportunity Employer. We encourage applications from women, BIPOC scholars, LGBTQ scholars, scholars with disabilities, and/or protected veterans.
Application Process This institution is using Interfolio's Faculty Search to conduct this search. Applicants to this position receive a free Dossier account and can send all application materials, including confidential letters of recommendation, free of charge.
The University of Pennsylvania values diversity and seeks talented students, faculty and staff from diverse backgrounds. The University of Pennsylvania is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer. Candidates are considered for employment without regard to race, color, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, religion, creed, national or ethnic origin, citizenship status, age, disability, veteran status or any other legally protected class. Questions or concerns about this should be directed to the Executive Director of the Office of Affirmative Action and Equal Opportunity Programs, University of Pennsylvania, 421 Franklin Building, 3451 Walnut Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6205; or (215) 898-6993 (Voice) or (215) 898-7803 (TDD).
Itineraries and Languages of Madness in the Early Modern World. Family Experience, Legal Practice, and Medical Knowledge in Eighteenth-Century Tuscany
Routledge July 6, 2021 296 Pages 2 B/W Illustrations ISBN 9780367528287
Drawing on a wide range of sources including interdiction procedures, records of criminal justice, documentation from mental hospitals, and medical literature, this book provides a comprehensive study of the spaces in which madness was recorded in Tuscany during the eighteenth century. It proposes the notion of itineraries of madness, which, intended as an heuristic device, enables us to examine records of madness across the different spaces where it was disclosed, casting light on the connections between how madness was understood and experienced, the language employed to describe it, and public and private responses devised to cope with it. Placing the emotional experience of the Tuscan families at the core of its analysis, this book stresses the central role of families in the shaping of new understandings of madness and how lay notions interacted with legal and medical knowledge. It argues that perceptions of madness in the eighteenth century were closely connected to new cultural concerns regarding family relationships and family roles, which resulted in a shift in the meanings of and attitudes to mental disturbances.
Véritable mise au point sur la reconstruction du nez, les sujets abordés sont ceux connus et pratiqués par l'auteur. L'histoire des reconstructions nasales est très ancienne, avec les lambeaux indiens, italiens puis, bien évidemment, les Gueules cassées de la Première Guerre mondiale. Les reconstructions par transplants préfabriqués doivent être bien sûr citées. Leur indication est exceptionnelle, mais ils doivent être connus par les plasticiens. À la fois pertinent et structuré, l'auteur nous livre des conclusions riches de ses années de pratique et un pan entier de son expérience chirurgicale personnelle. Date de publication : 6 septembre 2021
Mme Anaïs Albert, Maîtresse de conférences, Université de Paris M. Arnaud-Dominique Houte, Professeur des Universités, Sorbonne Université (rapporteur) M. Benoît Majerus, Full Professor, Université du Luxembourg M. Paul-André Rosental, Professeur des Universités, Sciences Po Paris Mme Isabelle von Bueltzingsloewen, Professeure des Universités, Université Lumière Lyon 2 M. David Wright, Professor of History, McGill University (rapporteur)
L’histoire de l’essor de l’asile en France après la loi de 1838 et de l’échec de son ambition thérapeutique a maintes fois été écrite. Mais celle des aliénés reste encore largement méconnue. Cette thèse propose une histoire sociale de la folie des années 1850 aux années 1900 fondée sur l’étude des trajectoires biographiques des aliénés. Pour cela, elle exploite les fonds d’archives de quatre asiles du Finistère et de région parisienne ainsi qu’un ensemble de sources inédites, issues des fonds de la justice pénale et civile et de sociétés de patronage pour aliénés convalescents, qui permettent d’étendre l’enquête au-delà du cadre asilaire.
Ce faisant, la thèse met en lumière les limites de l’emprise asilaire mais aussi les facteurs qui permettent l’appropriation de l’internement, notamment par les familles, comme moyen de régulation sociale. Elle montre comment les trajectoires et expériences d’aliénation mentale sont façonnées par les variables du genre, de l’âge et de la classe sociale. Elle propose, enfin, une histoire des subjectivités aliénées en prêtant attention aux formes d’accommodement ou de résistance que les malades mentaux opposent à leur subordination et à leur mise sous tutelle. L’aliéné, figure inversée du citoyen, tend un miroir à la société française et à ses évolutions.
“The Most Serious Misfortune That Can Befall a Citizen”. A Social History of the Insane (France, Second Half of the 19th Century)
The history of the rise of the asylum in France after the law of 1838 on the insane, and of the failure of its therapeutic ambition, is well-known. But the history of the insane themselves is yet to be written. This thesis proposes a social history of madness from the 1850s to the 1900s based on the study of trajectories of the mentally ill. To this end, it uses archives from four public lunatic asylums located in Brittany and the Paris area. It also exploits a set of hitherto unexploited sources from penal and civil courts and after-care associations for convalescent lunatics, thus allowing the extension of the study beyond the asylum walls.
In doing so, the thesis highlights the ways in which madness was managed outside the institutional sphere, but also the ways through which families and other actors appropriated asylum internment as a means of social regulation. It shows how trajectories and experiences of mental illness were shaped by factors of gender, age, and class. Finally, this thesis proposes a history of alienated subjectivities by paying attention to the various forms of accommodation or resistance that the mentally ill opposed to their subordination. As an inverted figure of the citizen, the lunatic holds a mirror up to French society and its transformations.