mardi 15 juin 2021

Histoire des infections à Lyon

De la peste de Justinien à la Covid-19. Histoire des infections à Lyon


Jean Freney (coord.)

 
EMCC
2021


Près de quinze siècles séparent l’épidémie de peste de Justinien de celle de la Covid-19. Entre ces deux calamités, la population de Lugdunum devenue Lyon fut confrontée à de nombreux autres épisodes infectieux massifs tels que paludisme, typhoïde, lèpre, vérole, variole, choléra, tuberculose, poliomyélite…

La situation géographique lyonnaise à la confluence de deux voies fluviales d’importance en a toujours fait un lieu privilégié d’échanges, de passages et de brassages de populations diverses. De plus jusqu’à une période récente, le manque d’hygiène publique fréquemment rapporté par les chroniqueurs constituait autant de facteurs qui ont entraîné une importante exposition de la ville aux maladies infectieuses.

Dès l’époque romaine des moyens efficaces de prévention avaient cependant été développés, qui se sont perpétués au cours du temps. En effet, Lyon a été souvent en avance dans la lutte contre les maladies infectieuses en préconisant très tôt des mesures d’hygiène qui ont servi d’exemple à d’autres villes du royaume, par exemple avec la fondation du Bureau de la Santé en 1581. Cette commission sanitaire avait la capacité d’imposer des mesures sanitaires sévères si la situation l’exigeait. Elle a joué un rôle de premier plan en particulier lors de la tragique épidémie de peste de 1628 qui emporta la moitié de la population de la ville. Des maires de Lyon ont ensuite joué un rôle important, comme Gabriel Prunelle lors de l’épidémie de choléra de 1834 ou Édouard Herriot lors de la pandémie de grippe espagnole de 1918 et 1919. Étonnamment, de la peste à la Covid-19, l’éventail des mesures adoptées et leurs applications ne diffèrent guère lorsqu’il s’agit de répondre à des crises sanitaires aiguës.

Lyon s’est également distinguée dans le domaine de la lutte contre les infections en particulier au cours du XIXe siècle grâce à des médecins qui ont imposé à l’hôpital (Hôtel-Dieu et Charité) les règles fondamentales de l’antisepsie et de l’asepsie. En témoignent les initiatives de Jean-François Terme, d’Antonin Poncet, de Louis-Léopold Ollier, d’Amédée Bonnet, Antoine Gailleton et de bien d’autres. Ils ont souvent donné leurs noms à des places et à des rues.

C’est à Lyon que fut créée la première école vétérinaire du monde en 1761 par Claude Bourgelat, écuyer de Louis XV, qui s’illustra dans la lutte contre les épizooties, et dont l’œuvre fut poursuivie par des sommités lyonnaises telles qu’Auguste Chauveau et Saturnin Arloing. Et cette même école vétérinaire mit à disposition des médecins de l’Hôtel-Dieu ses équipements scientifiques à la fin du XIXe siècle, amorçant ainsi un rapprochement entre médecines humaine et animale.

À Lyon sont également nés des géants de l’industrie biomédicale, grâce à l’implication de la dynastie des Mérieux dans la vaccination ou le diagnostic des infections. L’implantation de leaders mondiaux dédiés à la santé humaine et animale comme Sanofi et Boehringer-Ingelheim en constitue l’aboutissement.

De la peste de Justinien à la Covid-19, très largement illustré, analyse sur environ 500 pages les luttes qui ont opposé souvent avec succès les Lyonnais et habitants de la région à des maladies dont ils ignorèrent longtemps la cause bactérienne, virale ou parasitaire. Cette histoire deux fois millénaire se perpétue aujourd’hui avec la pandémie de la Covid-19, qui n’épargne pas plus la ville que le reste de la planète.

Évoquer cette histoire des épidémies, ceux qui les ont subis, les lieux qui en témoignent, les hommes qui les ont combattues ainsi que les moyens mis en œuvre pour lutter contre les différentes infections, telle a été l’ambition qui a guidé les auteurs avec la volonté de transmettre leur passion de la microbiologie ainsi que la mémoire et l’histoire de leur ville, de son patrimoine matériel et immatériel.

Les connexions contagieuses

Contagious Connections in Vast Early America and the Atlantic World


Call for papers


The Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture invites  applications from scholars across academic disciplines for participation  in a series of workshops dedicated to revisiting and rethinking the  history and historiography of epidemics in Vast Early America and the  Atlantic World. Co-chaired by Ryan Kashnanipour (University of Arizona)  and Claire Gherini (Fordham University), “Contagious Connections” is a  series of six works-in-progress seminars that will take place, online,
between January and May 2022 in which participants will convene to  discuss and workshop pre-circulated papers. We invite proposals for  unpublished, chapter-length pieces on epidemics in Vast Early  America/The Atlantic World for those workshops.

Epidemics were a foundational force in the early history of the Americas  and the larger Atlantic World. Yet their interdisciplinary and  comparative analysis has often been restricted by the imperial and
chronological priorities of these regions’ subfields as well as older  biomedical and demographic approaches to the study of disease. Rather  than rehashing whether acquired immunity destined Native Americans to  extirpation and Africans for slavery in the Americas, this series  proceeds from the idea that epidemics are epistemological and  ontological forces: they have a historical materiality but become
epidemics of a particular disease when historical actors collectively  decide to name and treat them as such. We invite paper submissions that  engage with epidemics and/or infectious diseases beyond their biological attributes. We are open to papers of many kinds, possible themes and questions might include:

* The political and social ramifications, in particular times and places, of naming widespread infirmity an epidemic. How do such pronouncements and definitions work to mobilize resources? What
populations do they render legible? Which figures and administrative bodies got to make these definitions?
* What administrative differences between empires rendered such pronouncements and definitions easier to make and contest, as well as see in the archive?
* How did the divergent temporalities of so-called crowd diseases’ (smallpox, yellow fever, measles for example) and those that are more chronic disorders (yaws, coco-bays, dropsy) shape official and
quotidian responses to them? * Naming generalized infirmity an epidemic magnifies its visibility in
the archive. Papers might explore the more quotidian types of infirmity that have been overlooked as a consequence and how they were managed and thought about by the communities affected by them.
* Papers might use the uneven impact of different epidemics as a window onto the endemic nature of illness in the early modern Americas and underlying health disparities.
* Sudden and widespread sickness tends to galvanize discovery of its modes of communication. To think about the materiality of epidemics, papers might focus on how these discoveries reconfigure mobility and daily habits of living. Or they might use authorities’ efforts to regulate or outlaw quotidian practices of bodily health or sustenance to recover what are often overlooked materials and practices that are central to gendered and racialized economies of care.
* Papers might explore the development of new forms mourning, internment, and memorialization that communities developed to reckon with the new scale of death created by an epidemic.

As we hope to see this series culminate in a community of scholars who  might polish their works for collective publication in an edited collection, in summer 2022, should conditions allow, we may convene in-person in Washington D.C. for one week for a second round of workshops where participants will present and receive feedback on revised versions of their papers.

The original deadline for submissions has been extended. Interested individuals are asked to submit an abstract no longer than 500 words and abbreviated CV no longer than three pages by *JULY 15, 2021*:

For more information please go to:
https://oieahc.wm.edu/events/contagious-connections/
<https://linkprotect.cudasvc.com/url?a=https%3a%2f%2foieahc.wm.edu%2fevents%2fcontagious-connections%2f&c=E,1,bBRdDmkxPNhVBBrBtkbg9P5MZwKmlheUHTCwHZJinpX6a3LMzK_2s0ioLmcvqsp3CHAGAQnMr8LDdfMbkKuODyHf_C5MEbDFbNLvWVF_b0M_RNJt2PdJUzdN-Rw,&typo=1>

lundi 14 juin 2021

Maladie et handicap dans l'art et la littérature médiévaux et modernes

Disease and Disability in Medieval and Early Modern Art and Literature


R. F. Canalis, M. Ciavolella (eds.)


Brepols
379 p., 10 b/w ill. + 100 colour ill., 156 x 234 mm, 2021
ISBN: 978-2-503-58870-4



Humanity has always shown a keen interest in the pathological, ranging from a morbid fascination with ‘monsters’ and deformities to a genuine compassion for the ill and suffering. Medieval and early modern people were no exception, expressing their emotional response to disease in both literary works and, to a somewhat lesser extent, in the plastic arts. Consequently, it becomes necessary to ask what motivated writers and artists to choose an illness or a disability and its physical and social consequences as subjects of aesthetic or intellectual expression. Were these works the result of an intrusion in their intent to faithfully reproduce nature, or do they reflect an intentional contrast against the pre-modern portrayal of spiritual ideals and, later, through the influence of the classics, the rediscovered importance and beauty of the human body?

The essays contained in this volume address these questions, albeit not always directly but, rather, through an analysis of the societal reactions to the threats and challenges that essentially unopposed disease and physical impairment presented. They cover a wide range of responses, variable, of course, according to the period under scrutiny, its technological moment, and the usually fruitless attempts at treatment.


Rinaldo F. Canalis, MD FACS, is Emeritus Professor in the Department of Head and Neck Surgery (Otolaryngology) at the David Geffen School of Medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles, and Associated Faculty in the UCLA Center of Medieval and Renaissance Studies. He has written numerous articles on the history of Renaissance medicine and on the pathology of pre-Colombian peoples.

Massimo Ciavolella, PhD, taught for many years at Carleton University (Ottawa) and at the University of Toronto before coming to his present positions as Professor of Italian and Comparative Literature, Franklin D. Murphy Chair in Italian Renaissance Studies, and Director of the Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies at the University of California, Los Angeles. Table of Contents




Introduction and Epidemiological Perspective
Rinaldo F. Canalis and Massimo Ciavolella

Part I. Medieval and Transitional Periods

The Art of Medicine in Byzantium: Disease and Disability in Byzantine Manuscripts
Alain Touwaide

Miracle and the Monstrous: Disability and Deviant Bodies in the Late Middle Ages
Jenni Kuuliala.

Leprosy, Melancholy, Folly and their Representations in French Medieval Literature
Gaia Gubini

Malady in Literary Texts from the Medieval and Early Modern Periods. Some Hypotheses on a Paradoxical Constellation
Joachim Küpper

Fevers, Botches and Carbuncles: Describing the Plague in Late Medieval and Early Modern Medical Treatises
Lori Jones

Part II. The Early Modern Period

The Role of Architecture and the Decorative Arts in Renaissance Medicine
Francis Wells

Art in Disease and Disease in Art: Reflections on Two Early Modern Paradigmatic Examples
Manuela Gallerani.

The Mal Franzoso: Between Art, History and Literature: Paracelso and Della Porta
Alfonso Paolella

The Ailing Artist
Roberto Fedi

Nicolas Poussin`s The Plague at Ashdod and the French Disease
Efrain Kristal

‘Yet have I in me something dangerous’: On the Interplay of Medicine and Maleficence in Shakespeare’s Hamlet
Sara Frances Burdorff

Textures of Lesions – Textures of Prints
Domenico Bertoloni Meli

Index

La science et l'image en mouvement

Science and the Moving Image: Histories of Intermediality


Call for papers

Location: Online (Zoom)

Date: November 2nd and 3rd, 2021. PM (UK time).

Since the advent of film in the late nineteenth century, moving images have been integral to making and communicating science. A rich interdisciplinary literature has examined such representations of science in the cinema and on television and investigated how scientists have used moving images to conduct research and communicate knowledge. Responding to growing interest in science and the moving image, this online workshop uses the concept of ‘intermediality’ as a starting point to discuss new approaches and methodologies. Intermediality, coined by media scholars to describe the interplay between different media, magnifies their multiple meanings and heterogenous interrelations. Moving images especially invite intermedial analysis because they are often composed of interrelated visuals, speech, music, and text; film can also be cut into stills for reproduction in newspapers, advertisements, and journals. Intermedial approaches thus allow scholars to assess not only the relationship between scientific practices and media forms, but also the afterlives, circulation, and reception of these media in a richer historical context. With its attention to relations and movement between media, intermediality also expands our understanding of the visual cultures of science, including in parts of the world and among groups that are underrepresented in current scholarship. We particularly invite submissions that use intermediality to engage critically with the scope and limits of science and the moving image.

Possible themes might include:

· Processes of translation between different media, including film, television, radio, and print

· Intermedial practices and histories of specific scientific disciplines

· Moving images in science education

· Transnational and comparative approaches to scientific image-making

· Time-lapse, frame-by-frame analysis, and other analytical methods as intermedial practices

· Representations of science in multimedia entertainment industries

· The relationship between moving images of science and the history of empire and colonization

· Amateur uses of moving image media, including citizen science

· The cultural reproduction through scientific images of gender, race, and class.



Keynote speaker: Dr. Tim Boon (Head of Research and Public History, Science Museum Group)

We welcome talks from postgraduate students, early-career researchers and established scholars. We are looking for abstracts (max. 250 words) for 15-20 minute talks, which will be arranged in thematic panels. Submissions should be sent to movingimagescience@gmail.com. The deadline for proposals is June 28th, 2021 and we aim to respond to proposals within four weeks.

This workshop will take place online via Zoom and is hosted by the Department of History and Philosophy of Science, University of Cambridge. The workshop is kindly supported by the Researcher Development Fund and the G.M. Trevelyan Fund.

Organised by: Miles Kempton, Max Long, Anin Luo

dimanche 13 juin 2021

La naissance de l'embryologie expérimentale

Préformation et épigenèse en développement. Naissance de l'embryologie expérimentale

Ghyslain Bolduc

 



Presses de l'Université de Montréal / Vrin
Collection Analytiques
400 pages / juin 2021
ISBN 978-2-7606-4413-7


La forme vitale est-elle virtuellement fixée dans le germe ou se déterminet- elle au cours du devenir embryonnaire ? Dans les années 1880, Wilhelm Roux cherche à résoudre ce problème par la création de l’embryologie expérimentale. Au moyen d’une reconstruction rationnelle des étapes historiques de cette discipline, cet ouvrage montre l’importance des concepts de préformation et d’épigenèse aux origines de celle-ci. L’analyse porte sur trois périodes charnières : la réforme mécaniste et darwinienne de l’embryologie morphologique par Ernst Haeckel (1866) ; l’avènement d’une physiologie réductionniste du développement avec Wilhelm His (1874) ; et la création d’une « mécanique du développement » par Roux ainsi que les interprétations néo-darwinienne, néo-vitaliste et organiciste de ses résultats les plus significatifs (1888-1908). L’auteur y soutient que ces développements suivent une logique de la découverte, selon laquelle les modèles mécaniques d’explication doivent être renouvelés lorsque leur examen empirique engendre la découverte de nouveaux phénomènes de régulation.Ce livre traite donc d’un enjeu fondamental de la philosophie des sciences : le rapport entre la rationalité scientifique et la découverte. Il offre aussi un éclairage sur une question très actuelle de la philosophie de la biologie, soit les transformations du concept d’épigenèse en rapport avec les théories épigénétiques contemporaines. La méthodologie adoptée ici s’inscrit dans la tradition de l’épistémologie historique, consacrée à l’étude des transformations du savoir scientifique, fondée sur l’analyse historique de diverses sources documentaires. Un éclairage théorique constitué de modèles provenant de la philosophie des sciences et de connaissances scientifiques demeure ici indispensable.


Sur la piste du Dr Samways

Dr Samways writes to the editor

Talk by Professor Tom Treasure (UCL)

 


The Faculty for the History and Philosophy of Medicine and Pharmacy's final lecture for the year will be held online on Wednesday 16 June at 6pm. Please feel free to circulate details to your colleagues, students and networks.

Tracing back the history of mitral stenosis during a mid-career sabbatical, I found an article in The Lancet of 1898 by DW Samways of Mentone proposing heart surgery. He was an inveterate writer of ‘Letters to the Editor’ on many and varied topics - blood-letting, eradication of mosquitos, health spas, sea water injections, typhoid fever, vaccination - and his own tuberculosis which is what took him to the French Riviera. Unable to practise in France during the 1914-19 war, he worked at a War Hospital in Exeter. He continued to write - on the design of ambulances, treatment of contaminated wounds, banding, fractures, anaesthetics - always with scientific curiosity and humanity. Dr Samways in my guide, witness and chronicler for my Flavell Lecture.


Students – Free to attend, please book through the Faculty facultyhp@apothecaries.org


Non-students may book here: https://www.apothecaries.org/product/fachp-16-june-2021-dr-samways-writes-to-the-editor-flavell/

samedi 12 juin 2021

Félix Guattari en contexte

Madness, Media, Milieus. Félix Guattari in Context


Conference 

17, 18 and 21 June 2021
 

[Zoom links are available via request. Please register by email: felix.brieden[at]uni-weimar.de]


Organized by Henning Schmidgen, Mathias Schönher, Elena Vogman


With Andrew Goffey, Angela Melitopoulos, Marlon Miguel, François Pain, Peter Pál Pelbart, Anne Querrien, and Anne Sauvagnargues


This conference explores Félix Guattari's (1930–1992) multifaceted oeuvre as largely informed by his many years of active work at the psychiatric clinic of La Borde. Guattari’s therapeutic experiments with media – such as typewriters, film, and audio recordings, his cooperation with artists and architects, and the publication of newspapers and books decisively shaped the machine-thought that he would later develop, most predominantly in collaboration with philosopher Gilles Deleuze. While Guattari expanded Institutional Psychotherapy and its umwelt-theoretical concepts into a theory and praxis of transversality, the concept of the machine moved into the center of his thought.

In contradistinction to conventionally understood ‘technical objects‘, Guattari’s concept of the machine denotes a concatenation of heterogenous components traversed by a capacity, a desire, a surplus. What role do Guattari’s psychiatric practices play in the genesis of this machinic vitalism? How do desiring-machines transform the traditional understanding of the psyche? In which way do they undermine dichotomies such as aesthetics vs. politics, individual vs. collective, subject vs. object? Finally, how do Guattari’s experimental interventions at the interface of politics and psychiatry open perspectives on present problems such as artificial intelligence, behavioral tracking, or digital cultures?

This conference is the opening event of the research project »Madness, Media, Milieus. Reconfiguring the Humanities in Postwar Europe« directed by Elena Vogman. It argues that media form and transform our milieus, from geopolitical landscapes to our most intimate environs. The project studies a series of media and milieu practices developed in different settings of Institutional Psychotherapy since the 1940s. It examines efforts to produce environments, institutions, and milieus that would facilitate processes of psychological therapy and healing, in particular by psychiatrists and activists such as François Tosquelles, Jean Oury, Fernand Deligny, Frantz Fanon and Félix Guattari.

Drawing on newly discovered archives, the project explores the fundamental role of art and media which crucially contributed to the emergence of psychiatric milieus. At the same time, it investigates the productive repercussions of these media-milieu practices in critical humanities discourses. The project argues that these practices had a crucial impact on the humanities in postwar Europe, in particular post-structuralism and post-colonial studies, but also media theory, film studies, and science and technology studies. Media mold and modify milieus: This is the general hypothesis that will be reflected in four individual sub-projects carried out by historians of art, science, and technology, culminating in a joint exhibit presenting largely unseen texts, images, and films.


Thursday, 17 June 2021

5:00 – 5:15 pm Introduction and Welcome by Marlon Miguel, Henning Schmidgen
and Elena Vogman
5:15 – 5:45 pm Anne Querrien: Machines of Care
5:45 – 6:10 pm Discussion
6:10 – 6:20 pm Break
6:20 – 7:00 pm François Pain: From One Machine to Another (screening and comment)
7:00 – 7:30 pm Conversation between Anne Querrien and François Pain and Discussion


Friday, 18 June 2021

5:00 – 5:30 pm Henning Schmidgen: Guattari’s Architectures
5:30 – 5:50 pm Discussion
5:50 – 6:00 pm Break
6:00 – 6:30 pm Andrew Goffey: Patric Subjectivation and Machinic Environment
6:30 – 6:50 pm Discussion


Monday, 21 June 2021

5:00 – 5:30 pm Angela Melitopoulos: Machinic Animism and
the Revolutionary Practice of Geo-Psychiatry (based
on the audio-visual research Assemblages, 2010, and Matri LInear B, 2021)
5:30 – 5:50 pm Discussion
5:50 – 6:00 pm Break
6:00 – 6:30 pm Peter Paul Pelbart: De L’Atmosphère
6:30 – 6:50 pm Discussion
6:50 – 7:00 pm Break
7:00 – 7:30 pm Anne Sauvagnargues: tba.
7:30 – 7:50 pm Discussion
7:50 – 8:00 pm Concluding Remarks by Mathias Schönher




All updates on the workshop and more information on the research project can be found on the website: www.uni-weimar.de/madness-media-milieus

Réunion commune des Sociétés française et montpelliéraine d'histoire de la médecine

Réunion commune des Sociétés française et montpelliéraine d'histoire de la médecine (SFHM et SMHM)


Samedi 19 juin à partir de 14 h 30, en visioconférence, par ZOOM


C'est avec plaisir que nous vous annonçons la prochaine réunion commune des Sociétés française et montpelliéraine d'histoire de la médecine (SFHM et SMHM) qui se déroulera par ZOOM. Cette séance, centrée sur l'Histoire de la médecine à Montpellier, sera l'occasion, même avec un peu de retard, d'évoquer le 8e centenaire de son Université de Médecine, avec le programme suivant:



1) Thierry Lavabre-Bertrand: "La fondation de l'Université de Médecine de Montpellier, le 17 août 1220"


2) Jean-Pierre Dedet : "Les médecins naturalistes de Montpellier à la Renaissance"


3) Teunis Van Heiningen : "Charles de l'Ecluse, Guillaume Rondelet et la fondation de l'Hortus Medicus de l'Université de Leyde"


4) Philippe Albou : "Jean Astruc (1684-1766) et l'Histoire naturelle de Languedoc"


Chaque exposé est prévu pour 20 mn + 10 mn de questions.

Le lien de la réunion par ZOOM vous sera bien entendu adressé avant la réunion.