lundi 23 octobre 2017

Bernard Mandeville

Bernard Mandeville: A Treatise of the Hypochondriack and Hysterick Diseases (1730) 

Sylvie Kleiman-Lafon (Editor)


Series: International Archives of the History of Ideas
Hardcover: 238 pages
Publisher: Springer; October 15, 2017
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-3319577791

This work reflects on hypochondria as well as on the global functioning of the human mind and on the place of the patient/physician relationship in the wider organisation of society. First published in 1711, revised and enlarged in 1730, and now edited and published with a critical apparatus for the first time, this is a major work in the history of medical literature as well as a complex literary creation. Composed of three dialogues between a physician and two of his patients, Mandeville’s Treatise mirrors the digressive structure of a talking cure. Thanks to the soothing and enlightening effects of this casual conversation, the physician Mandeville demonstrates the healing power of words for a class of patients that he presents as men of learning who need above all to be addressed in their own language. Mandeville’s aim was to delineate his own cure for hypochondria and hysteria, which consisted of a talking cure followed by diet and exercise, but also to discuss the practice of medicine in England and continental Europe at a time when physicians were beginning to lose ground to apothecaries. Opposing a purely theoretical approach to medicine, Mandeville takes up the principles presented by Francis Bacon, Thomas Sydenham, and Giorgio Baglivi, and advocates a medical practice based on experience and backed up by time-tested theories.

Une histoire croisée des médecines alternatives et de la médecine académique

Pour en finir avec les médecines « parallèles ». Une histoire croisée des médecines alternatives et de la médecine académique (XIXe-XXe siècles)


Journée d’études 

Mardi 21 novembre

Le Mans-Université 
Salle Pierre Belon (BU) - 10h-17h00
Contact : herve.guillemain@univ-lemans.fr

Les médecines dites parallèles font l’objet depuis quelques années d’une relecture historique qui les sort du double écueil de l’hagiographie et de la dénonciation stérile de pratiques non scientifiques. Elles peuvent être considérées, par-delà leurs différences techniques et la variété de leurs contextes d’émergence, comme un objet historique cohérent connecté aux évolutions de la médecine moderne et lié par une même culture critique à l’égard des conceptions académiques et industrielles de la santé. Si le statut de leurs acteurs les place assurément aux frontières du professionnalisme et de l’amateurisme, la sociologie des groupes qui les portent et les interrogations qu’ils soulèvent dans le domaine de la santé leur confèrent en réalité une position centrale dans une optique d’histoire sociale de la santé. La relation entre une orthodoxie – dont on pourrait évidemment discuter l’homogénéité présumée – et cette hétérodoxie – dont on commence à esquisser au contraire la cohérence –, doit être interrogée sans négliger tous les points de contacts réels entre ces deux pôles du champ de la santé. L’expansion de la seconde est souvent liée aux évolutions internes de la première. Nombre des fondateurs de ces pratiques alternatives émanent des cercles de la médecine académique. Ce faisant, cette réinscription historique des pratiques dites « parallèles » au cœur du récit devrait être pensée selon un modèle cyclique, et non sur un modèle linéaire et/ou binaire. Aux périodes de marginalisation succèdent des périodes d’intégration aux pratiques médicales, expérimentales et hospitalières. La journée d’études explorera les manières de produire un nouveau récit sur ces pratiques à partir d’exemples récemment exhumés par les historiens : acupuncture, naturisme, homéopathie, médecine des plantes, médecines orientales, ostéopathie, végétarisme, radiesthésie…


Accueil à partir de 9H30

10h00

Hervé Guillemain (Le Mans université, CERHIO FRE 2004) – Introduction de la journée

Lucia Candelise (UMR Chine, Corée et Japon - EHESS/CNRS) "L'acupuncture en France (fin XIXe et XIXe siècle) : figures clés et circulation des savoirs.”

Ida Bost (Laboratoire d'Ethnologie et de Sociologie Comparative, Nanterre) "Des herboristes aux pharmaciens : autopsie d'une relation complexe (France, XIXe-XXe siècle)".

Discussion

11h15

Sylvain Villaret (Le Mans Université, VIPS² EA 4636) « Prendre une voie parallèle : un remède salutaire pour une médecine "condamnée" : le cas de la médecine naturiste française (XVIIIe siècle – première moitié du XXe siècle).

Olivier Faure (Lyon III - LAHRA), "Le moment 1830 des médecines "hétérodoxes" en France".

Discussion

12h30 Pause déjeuner

14h00

Léo Bernard (E.P.H.E., Paris Sciences & Lettres, Laboratoire d’Études sur les Monothéismes), « La médecine néo-hippocratique des années 1930 : le temps d’une rencontre. »

Arnaud Baubérot (Université Paris-Est Créteil, CRHEC EA 4392), "La santé par l'alimentation. Pour une histoire du végétarisme contemporain"

Discussion

15h15

Nicole Edelman (Paris-Ouest Nanterre, HAR), "Les apories du somnambulisme magnétique (1784-1895)"

Hervé Guillemain (Le Mans Université – CERHIO FRE 2004), « Une volonté de faire science. Les praticiens de la radiesthésie médicale dans l’entre deux guerres »

Discussion

16h30 Café

dimanche 22 octobre 2017

L'histoire des pollutions à l'âge industriel

La Contamination du monde. Une histoire des pollutions à l'âge industriel

François Jarrige et Thomas Le Roux

Le Seuil
L'Univers historique
Date de parution 05/10/2017
480 pages
EAN 9782021085761


Autrefois sources de nuisances locales circonscrites, les effets des activités humaines sur l’environnement se sont transformés en pollutions globales. Le climat se réchauffe, les mers s’acidifient, les espèces disparaissent, les corps s’altèrent : en rendre compte d’un point de vue historique permet de ne pas sombrer dans la sidération ni dans le découragement face à un processus qui semble devenu inéluctable. Car le grand mouvement de contamination du monde qui s’ouvre avec l’industrialisation est avant tout un fait social et politique, marqué par des cycles successifs, des rapports de force, des inerties, des transformations culturelles. En embrassant l’histoire des pollutions sur trois cents ans, à l’échelle mondiale, François Jarrige et Thomas Le Roux explorent les conflits et l’organisation des pouvoirs à l’âge industriel, mais aussi les dynamiques qui ont modelé la modernité capitaliste et ses imaginaires du progrès.

François Jarrige est maître de conférences à l’université de Bourgogne. Il a notamment publié Technocritiques. Du refus des machines à la contestation des technosciences (La Découverte, 2014).

Thomas Le Roux est chargé de recherches au CNRS (CRH-EHESS). Il est notamment l’auteur de Le Laboratoire des pollutions industrielles, Paris, 1770-1830 (Albin Michel, 2011).

Histoire des humanités environnementales

Environmental Humanities in Historical Perspective

Call for papers

The Ohio State University Department of Classics, in collaboration with OSU’s Discovery Theme for Environmental Humanities and the Humanities Institute, is proud to announce its 15th annual graduate student colloquium: Human | Nature: Environmental Humanities in Historical Perspective.

A sense of urgency characterizes contemporary discussions about ecological welfare and anthropogenic effects on the non-human environment. At the core of this discourse lie questions with a long history of artistic, philosophical, political and religious expression. The proper management of space and resources, the negotiation of shifting boundaries between the “human” and “natural” worlds (however one chooses to define these categories), as well as the contemplation of humanity’s place among the living and nonliving co-inhabitants of Earth are all pursuits basic to human survival and livelihood. Moreover, the ways earlier generations found to represent the natural world they experienced and their human community's place within it have shaped the way we think and talk about such matters today.

This colloquium will bring together scholars from a range of humanities disciplines to share and discuss theoretically-informed approaches to the study of human-environmental relationships throughout history. We encourage contributions from graduate students in all fields of the humanities, including anthropology, archaeology, art history, classics, English, geography, history, landscape architecture, philosophy, theology and related fields.

Possible topics include:
• The concept of nature and the natural, or wilderness and the wild 
• The construction of space and place in literature or the physical environment
• Landscapes and seascapes in literary or artistic representations
• Relations between urban and agricultural/pastoral zones
• Demarcation of sacred space
• Hybridization, cultivation and domestication
• Environmental effects of technological developments
• Permanence, impermanence and shifting boundaries
• Habitats and dwelling spaces

Keynote speaker: Timothy Saunders, Volda University College
Opening remarks: Chris Otter, The Ohio State University


Abstracts of 250-300 words and any inquiries may be sent to osuclassics2018@gmail.com.
Abstracts should be submitted no later than November 15th, 2017.

samedi 21 octobre 2017

Des fous et des hommes avant l’art brut

Des fous et des hommes avant l’art brut – suivi de Marcel Réja : L’Art chez les fous – Le dessin, la prose, la poésie – 1907 (édition critique et augmentée)
 
Marc Décimo

Les presses du réel
18 x 25,5 cm (broché)
480 pages (160 ill. n&b)
ISBN : 978-2-84066-911-1

Textes de Benjamin Pailhas, Joseph Capgras, Maurice Ducosté, Ludovic Marchand, Georges Petit.

Un essai introductif sur l'art asilaire, depuis la belle époque jusqu'à la théorisation de l'art brut, suivi d'une réédition critique et augmentée de la célèbre étude de l'aliéniste français du début du XXe siècle Marcel Réja sur la production artistique chez les « fous ». Quand Jean Dubuffet cristallise l'art brut, André Breton rappelle la gêne croissante qu'avaient les aliénistes à s'accorder autour de l'art des fous. Cette quête – à la fois esthétique et médicale – trouve, autour du Musée de la folie du docteur Marie et du livre-phare de Marcel Réja, une réflexion nouvelle qui vient interroger le sens commun à propos des limites de l'art et de la folie, question qui va hanter le XXe siècle.

Professeur d'histoire de l'art contemporain à Paris-X Nanterre, Régent du Collège de 'Pataphysique (chaire d'Amôriographie littéraire, ethnographique et architecturale), Marc Décimo est linguiste, sémioticien et historien d'art.

Reconsidérer la lèpre et la léproserie


vendredi 20 octobre 2017

La campagne de Barbara Robb

Improving Psychiatric Care for Older People: Barbara Robb’s Campaign 1965-1975 

 Claire Hilton

Series: Mental Health in Historical Perspective
Hardcover: 283 pages
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan; October 14, 2017
Language: English
ISBN-13: 978-3319548128

This book tells the story of Barbara Robb and her pressure group, Aid for the Elderly in Government Institutions (AEGIS). In 1965, Barbara visited 73-year-old Amy Gibbs in a dilapidated and overcrowded National Health Service psychiatric hospital back-ward. She was so appalled by the low standards that she set out to make improvements. Barbara’s book Sans Everything: A case to answer was publicly discredited by a complacent and self-righteous Ministry of Health. However, inspired by her work, staff in other hospitals ‘whistle-blew’ about events they witnessed, which corroborated her allegations. Barbara influenced government policy, to improve psychiatric care and health service complaints procedures, and to establish a hospitals' inspectorate and ombudsman. The book will appeal to campaigners, health and social care staff and others working with older people, and those with an interest in policy development in England, the 1960s, women’s history and the history of psychiatry and nursing.

Les cultures matérielles de la psychiatrie

Material Cultures of Psychiatry

Call for papers

3 mai 20184 mai 2018
Department for History and Ethics of Medicine Hamburg

Deadline: 15 December 2017
Languages: German, English


In the past, our ideas of psychiatric hospitals and their history have been shaped by objects like straitjackets, cribs and binding belts. These powerful objects are often used as a synonym for psychiatry and the way psychiatric patients are treated. But what do we really know about the social life (see Majerus 2011) of psychiatric patients and the stories of less spectacular objects in the everyday life of psychiatric institutions? What do we know about the material cultures of these places in general?

The workshop will use the term “material cultures” very broadly and in the plural. This term refers not only to medical objects, objects of therapy and objects of care, but also to everyday cultural objects. The latter are subject to change when they enter the realm of psychiatry, where they become part of the specific cultural praxis of psychiatric institutions: a bed clearly changes its meaning in a psychiatric hospital, but so do flowers, a mirror and a blanket. The term “material cultures” also includes phenomena that have a material dimension like air, light, colours and sound (see Kalthoff et al. 2016). The use of the term in the plural should make us aware of the different, often competing cultural practices that emerge when we focus on the application and appropriation of objects and materials by patients, doctors and nursing staff. It also raises the question of the extent to which material cultures influence both therapeutic treatment and the production of knowledge.

Objects as agents
Objects can be described as agents since they have a stabilising, destabilising and transforming impact on the practice of psychiatry; they organise social relationships, influence or predetermine the practice of psychiatry, have an impact on power relations and create specific self-relations and relationships with others. Presentations should analyse objects from the history of psychiatry as agents and explore their fields of action.

Means of appropriation and expropriation
The (artistic) works of patients, as found in historical collections such as the Prinzhorn Collection in Heidelberg and the Morgenthaler Collection in Bern, are impressive testimonies of the manifold ways that patients appropriated the different materials of psychiatric hospitals, including remnants, clippings, bedsprings and much more. They are part of a material culture of psychiatry and bear its traces. In parallel, patients’ works as well as personal belongings were subject to expropriation, interpreted as symptoms of a disease or used for the implementation of new (power) relations. Appropriation concerned not only materials but also therapeutic objects or objects of care that had to be appropriated by patients, doctors and nursing staff.

Scenography of things
The term “scenography” refers to the design of stage scenery. It draws attention to the spatial arrangement of people and things as well as the scripts that are inscribed in an object, which the spatial arrangement (of a ward, a day room, a hall) should express. It poses the question of how objects and material phenomena structured the perception, communication and movements of patients, nursing staff and doctors, and how these spatial arrangements of objects and agents influenced the interactions and power relations between them.

Transformations
How do objects of therapy and objects of care, as well as everyday cultural objects, materials and material phenomena, acquire their specific meaning for the various agents of a psychiatric institution? What transformation process do they go through? What transformations do these objects undergo in practice? Objects should also be seen as an interface, where ways of thinking and acting meet, condense, shift and materialise.

Economies
Examining the material cultures of psychiatry involves looking at questions of economy: the economy of the institution, individual economies like the exchange of materials and things, the economical use of materials, etc. In what ways do the economic conditions of the institution influence the material cultures of psychiatry and how do these cultures affect the economy of the institution?


Presentations should take into account the social and cultural background of objects of psychiatry, their various meanings, their involvement in actions, their ability to act and to shape social and spatial relations as well as their reference to practices of knowledge, specific discourses and power relations. Corresponding approaches referring to the “material turn” are the focus of much interest in the cultural and social sciences and have been the subject of research in the history of medicine, but they have been neglected in historical research on psychiatry, at least in the German-speaking realm.

Possible research objects for your presentations could be the following: beds, baths, doors, corridors, walls, bed screens, tables, chairs, bedside tables and bath tubs; tools, dishes, knives, spoons and forks; murals, bars, fences, windows; bowling alleys; keys and locks; paintings, books, plants, flowers, mirrors; light, darkness, water, electricity, smells; syringes, needles, sleeping pills and tranquilisers, straitjackets, binding belts; blankets, pillows, sheets, clothes, white coats, fabrics; straw, seaweed, horse hair, paper, packing material, cigarettes; telephones, watchs, typewriters; food, etc.

We are also interested in discussing the epistemic value of a material approach for the history of psychiatry and its possible additions to or corrections of this history. What agents, practices and social interactions come into view when we focus on the material dimensions of psychiatry? What agents and practices that previously went unnoticed gain significance by focusing on the material cultures of psychiatry? And what new perspectives on the psychiatric institution open up?

Please submit an abstract (max. 2000 characters) with a short CV to m.ankele@uke.de by 15 December 2017. Inventive approaches and presentations are especially welcome. We would also be delighted to receive proposals for artistic work.

The workshop is part of the research project “Bed and Bath: Objects and Spaces of Therapy in Psychiatry of the 19th and 20th century” (head of project: Univ. Prof. Dr Heinz-Peter Schmiedebach), funded by the German Research Foundation. We are not yet sure that travel and accommodation costs will be fully covered.

It is planned to publish the papers presented at the workshop in an edited book. The contributions (15 to 20 papers) should be submitted by 10 July 2018 to ensure a quick turnaround.


Bibliography:
Frank, Michael C./Gockel, Bettina/Hauschild, Thomas/Kimmich, Dorothee/Malke, Kirsten: Fremde Dinge – zur Einführung, in Frank, Michael C./Gockel, Bettina/Hauschild, Thomas/Kimmich, Dorothee/Malke, Kirsten (eds): Fremde Dinge. (= Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften 1) Bielefeld 2007, 9-16.
Ledebur, Sophie: Schreiben und Beschreiben. Zur epistemischen Funktion von psychiatrischen Krankenakten, ihrer Archivierung und deren Übersetzung in Fallgeschichten. In: Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte 34 (2011), 102‐124.
Schäfer, Armin: Lebendes Dispositiv. Hand beim Schreiben, in Borck, Cornelius/Schäfer, Armin (eds): Psychographien. Zürich, Berlin 2006, 241-265.
Kalthoff, Herbert/Cress, Torsten/Röhl, Tobias: Einleitung. Materialität in Kultur und Gesellschaft, in: Kalthoff, Herbert/Cress, Torsten/Röhl, Tobias (eds): Materialität. Herausforderungen für die Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften. Paderborn 2016.
Majerus, Benoît: La baignore, le lit et la porte. La vie sociale des objets de la psychiatrie, in: Genèses 2011/1 (82), 95-119.
Topp, Leslie: Freedom and the Cage: Modern Architecture and Society in Central Europe 1890-1914, Penn State University Press 2017.

Dr Monika Ankele
Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf
Zentrum für Psychosoziale Medizin
Institut für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin (Geb. N30b)
Martinistraße 52
D-20246 Hamburg
m.ankele@uke.de

Prof. Benoît Majerus
Université du Luxembourg
Luxembourg Centre for Contemporary and Digital History
Maison des Sciences Humaines
11, Porte des Sciences
L-4366 Esch-sur-Alzette
benoit.majerus@uni.lu