Published: 29 June 2017
Embodiment—defined as having, being in, or being associated with a body—is a feature of the existence of many entities, perhaps even of all entities. Why entities should find themselves in this condition is the central concern of the present volume. The problem includes, but also goes beyond, the philosophical problem of body: that is, what the essence of a body is, and how, if at all, it differs from matter. On some understandings there may exist bodies, such as stones or asteroids, that are not the bodies of any particular subjects. To speak of embodiment by contrast is always to speak of a subject that variously inhabits, or captains, or is coextensive with, or even is imprisoned within, a body. The subject may in the end be identical to, or an emergent product of, the body. That is, a materialist account of embodied subjects may be the correct one.
But insofar as there is a philosophical problem of embodiment, the identity of the embodied subject with the body stands in need of an argument and cannot simply be assumed. The reasons, nature, and consequences of the embodiment of subjects as conceived in the long history of philosophy in Europe as well as in the broader Mediterranean region and in South and East Asia, with forays into religion, art, medicine, and other domains of culture, form the focus of these essays. More precisely, the contributors to this volume shine light on a number of questions that have driven reflection on embodiment throughout the history of philosophy. What is the historical and conceptual relationship between the idea of embodiment and the idea of subjecthood? Am I who I am principally in virtue of the fact that I have the body I have? Relatedly, what is the relationship of embodiment to being and to individuality? Is embodiment a necessary condition of being? Of being an individual? What are the theological dimensions of embodiment? To what extent has the concept of embodiment been deployed in the history of philosophy to contrast the created world with the state of existence enjoyed by God? What are the normative dimensions of theories of embodiment? To what extent is the problem of embodiment a distinctly western preoccupation? Is it the result of a particular local and contingent history, or does it impose itself as a universal problem, wherever and whenever human beings begin to reflect on the conditions of their existence?
Ultimately, to what extent can natural science help us to resolve philosophical questions about embodiment, many of which are vastly older than the particular scientific research programs we now believe to hold the greatest promise for revealing to us the bodily basis, or the ultimate physical causes, of who we really are?
Series Editor's Foreward
Introduction, Justin E.H. Smith
1. "The Body of Western Embodiment: Classical Antiquity and the Early History of a Problem" Brooke Holmes
2. "Embodied or Ensouled: Aristotle on the Relation of Soul and Body" Helen Lang
3. "Asceticism and Aestheticism: The Paradox of Embodiment in Plotinus' Enneads" Lesley-Anne Dyer Williams
4. "Augustinian Puzzles about Body, Soul, Flesh, and Death" Sarah Byers
5. "Medieval Jewish Philosophers and the Human Body" Yoav Meyrav
6. "Scholastic Philosophers on the Role of the Body in Knowledge" Rafael Nájera
7. "Hobbes's Embodied God" Geoffrey Gorham
8. "Leibniz's View of Individuals: Nested or Embodied Individuals" Ohad Nachtomy
9. "Descartes and Spinoza: Two Approaches to Embodiment" Alison Peterman
10. "Man-Machines and Embodiment: From Cartesian Physiology to Claude Bernard's 'Living Machine'" Philippe Huneman and Charles T. Wolfe
11. "The Embodiment of Virtue: Towards a Cross-Cultural Cognitive Science" Jake H. Davis
1. "The Devil in the Flesh: On Witchcraft and Possession" Véronique Decaix
2. "Phantom Limbs" Stephen Gaukroger
3. "Embodied Geometry in Early Modern Theatre" Yelda Nasifoglu
4. "Ghosts in the Celestial Machine: Embodiment in the Late Renaissance" Jonathan Regier
5. "The Genotype/Phenotype Distinction" Emily Herring
Call for papers for a special issue of the EASTS Journal
Deadline for submissions: September 30, 2017
In the twenty-first century, East Asian societies encounter diverse predicaments in terms of modern science, technologies, and medicine. Since the late twentieth century, organ transplantation, genome research and euthanasia have been argued widely in the politics, society, and culture of countries in East Asia. The research environment around science and technology became more competitive, which sometime caused manipulation of, or fabrication of, experimental results. In 2011 Japan experienced a series of breakdown of nuclear power plants in Fukushima, in which extensive parts of east Japan struggle with radioactive contamination. All these situations urge us to reconsider our belief in, and ethics of, life, science and power. It is certainly necessary that science and technology studies and medical humanities consider this topic.
This special issue “Life, Science and Power in History and Philosophy” is to re-construct, extend, and develop the humanities perspectives to understand medicine in East Asia. In so doing, it promotes further development of interdisciplinary studies of science, technology and medicine from the viewpoints of humanities. Papers will examine modern medicine in East Asia from for perspectives, namely, 1) philosophical dimensions, 2) cultural dimensions, 3) social dimensions, 4) epistemological dimensions.
Among the questions that papers might explore are:
* What, if any, are the unique features related to the issue of “life, science and power” in East Asia?
* Are recent incidents related to the issue of “life, science and power” in East Asia?
* How has the political, economic, social, philosophical and cultural environment in East Asia contributed to the issue of “life, science and power” in this region?
* How have we thought of biopolitics and biopower oriented by Michel Foucault in East Asia?
* How have the scientific community, research institutes, and the state responded to the issue of “life, science and power” in East Asia?
We welcome papers from a range of disciplines, including STS, sociology, history, and anthropology.
Papers should be between 8,000 and 12,000 words including reference and other text, clearly addressing the theme and focus of the subject issue. Please submit your paper to BOTH of the following e-mails: email@example.comAND firstname.lastname@example.org. Please indicate in the email title that your submission is for the Life, Science and Power in History special issue.
The US National Library of Medicine, on the campus of the National Institutes of Health in Bethesda, Maryland, has been a center of information innovation since its beginnings in the early 19th century. The world's largest medical library and a federal government agency, it maintains and makes publicly available a diverse and world-renowned collection of materials dating from the 11th to the 21st centuries, and it produces a variety of electronic resources that millions of people around the globe search billions of times each year. The library also supports and conducts research, development, and training in biomedical informatics and health information technology, and it coordinates the National Network of Libraries of Medicine that promotes and provides access to health information in communities across the United States. As the library anticipates its third century of public service, this book offers a visual history of its development from its earliest days through the late 20th century, as the institution has involved generations of visionary leaders and dedicated individuals who experienced the American Civil War, the world wars, the Cold War, and the dawn of the information age.
New York Academy of Medicine Library History of Medicine Fellowships
Call for applications
Applications are currently being accepted for the 2018 cycle of the New York Academy of Medicine Library’s History of Medicine fellowships. The fellowships support the advancement of scholarly research in the history of medicine and public health. Fellowship recipients are in-house scholars who conduct research using the Academy’s collections and resources. Information about the two residential fellowships, along with application materials and instructions for applying can be found at https://www.nyam.org/awards-grants/library-fellowships/
Questions about the fellowships or about the application process may be directed to Arlene Shaner, Historical Collections Librarian, at email@example.com or 212-822-7313.
Spatializing the History of Ecology: Sites, Journeys, Mappings
Raf de Bont & Jens Lachmund (Editors)
Series: Routledge Studies in the History of Science, Technology and Medicine
Hardcover: 250 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (June 28, 2017)
Throughout its history, the discipline of ecology has always been profoundly entangled with the history of space and place. On the one hand, ecology is a field science that has thrived on the study of concrete spatial entities, such as islands, forests or rivers. These spaces are the workplaces in which ecological phenomena are identified, observed and experimented on. They provide both epistemic opportunities and constraints that structure the agenda and the analytical sensibilities of ecological researchers. On the other hand, ecological knowledge and practices have become important resources through which spaces and places are classified, delineated, explained, experienced and managed. The impact of these activities reaches far beyond the realms of the ecological discipline. Many ecological concepts such as "biotopes," "ecosystems" and "the biosphere" have become entities that widely resonate in public life and policy making.
This book explores the mutual entanglement between space and knowledge-making in the history of ecology. Its first goal is to explore to which extent a spatial perspective can shed new light on the history of ecological science. Second, it uses ecology as a critical site to gain broader insights into the history of the environment in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Via a series of case studies – discussing topics that range from ecological field stations in the early-twentieth century Caribbean over wisent breeding in Nazi Germany to computer modelling in North American deserts – the book offers a tour through the changing landscapes of modern ecology.
This is the first EAHMH biennial conference to be hosted in Eastern Europe. To date, Eastern Europe has received only limited attention from medical historians. Due to large political shifts, the history of the region is embracing new opportunities. While detailed regional studies are still required to uncover the pathways and processes of knowledge construction, the conference intends to foster discussions about how historians have considered the role of power and politics in the construction of medical knowledge.
The state, as we have come to know it, is very much a 19th-century creation. After poverty, ill health was the dominant social issue targeted by the interventions of emerging – states. Following the principle of the fair allocation of resources to meet basic social and economic needs, many countries introduced collective funding of health care in the 19th century. National healthcare systems came to epitomise the principle that all citizens have an equal right to health and that costs should be shared equitably. At the end of WWII, the WHO defined health as a universal human right. In the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), it was proclaimed that “everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including medical care”. Over the course of the 20th century, health and disease have become a matter of direct concern for the state. As an aspect of democratic citizenship, the provision of medical care is not considered a favour, but a civil right guaranteed by the state.
In recent decades, we have witnessed a globalisation of disease patterns, the rise of chronic disease, rapid technological change, spiralling healthcare costs, and the demise of the nation state. From 1990 onwards, we have seen heated public and political debates about the organisation and financing of collective healthcare. One key question has been: to what extent can the state be held responsible for the health of citizens and the practice of medicine? In many countries, collective arrangements were critically reconsidered, reformed or transferred to “the market”. Rationalisation and commercialisation brought in managers, who took control from professionals, creating new bureaucracies that to a large extent withdrew from democratic supervision. Triggered by the crisis of the welfare state since the 1980s and by the reassessment of the system of nation states since 1989, this conference sets out to rethink the role of the state in the domain of healthcare.
Series: Routledge Studies in the History of Science, Technology and Medicine
Hardcover: 250 pages
Publisher: Routledge; 1 edition (June 28, 2017)
Appraising cancer as a major medical market in the 2010s, Wall Street investors placed their bets on single-technology treatment facilities costing $100-$300 million each. Critics inside medicine called the widely-publicized proton-center boom "crazy medicine and unsustainable public policy." There was no valid evidence, they claimed, that proton beams were more effective than less costly alternatives. But developers expected insurance to cover their centers’ staggeringly high costs and debts. Was speculation like this new to health care?
Cancer, Radiation Therapy, and the Market shows how the radiation therapy specialty in the United States (later called radiation oncology) coevolved with its device industry throughout the twentieth-century. Academic engineers and physicians acquired financing to develop increasingly powerful radiation devices, initiated companies to manufacture the devices competitively, and designed hospital and freestanding procedure units to utilize them. In the process, they incorporated market strategies into medical organization and practice. Although palliative benefits and striking tumor reductions fueled hopes of curing cancer, scientific research all too often found serious patient harm and disappointing beneficial impact on cancer survival. This thoroughly documented and provocative inquiry concludes that public health policy needs to re-evaluate market-driven high-tech medicine and build evidence-based health care systems.